3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type ii

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily , which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. [7]

“Direct blockade of androgens from interacting with the androgen receptor.[91][55] It should be noted however that spironolactone, similarly to other steroidal antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, is not a pure, or silent, antagonist of the androgen receptor, but rather a weak partial agonist with the capacity for both agonist and antagonist effects.[92][93][94] However, in the presence of significant enough levels of potent full agonists like testosterone and DHT,[94] the cases in which it is usually used even with regards to the “lower” relative levels present in females, spironolactone will behave similar to a pure antagonist. Nonetheless, there may still be a potential for spironolactone to produce androgenic effects (. act as a receptor agonist) in the body at sufficiently high doses and/or in those with low enough endogenous androgen concentrations. As an example, one condition in which spironolactone is contraindicated is prostate cancer,[95] as the drug has been shown in vitro to significantly accelerate carcinoma growth in the absence of any other androgens, and was found to do so at the relatively high rate of approximately 32%, which was about 35% that of DHT (thus also indicating that its potential intrinsic activity at the androgen receptor may be somewhere around one-third that of endogenous full agonists).[92] In accordance, two case reports have described significant worsening of prostate cancer with spironolactone treatment in patients with the disease, leading the authors to conclude that spironolactone has the potential for androgenic effects in some contexts and that it should perhaps be considered to be a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM).[96][97]”

AKR1C3 (Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AKR1C3 include Acute Endometritis and Childhood Leukemia . Among its related pathways are superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis and Metabolism . Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity . An important paralog of this gene is AKR1C1 .

Rat Y' bile acid binders (33 kD) have been previously recognized as cytosolic bile acid binding proteins (Sugiyama, Y., T. Yamada, and N. Kaplowitz, 1983, J. Biol. Chem., 258:3602-3607). We have now determined that these Y' binders are 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3 alpha-HSD), bile acid-metabolizing enzymes. 3 alpha-HSD activity copurified with lithocholic acid-binding activity after sequential gel filtration, chromatofocusing, and affinity chromatography. Three peaks of 3 alpha-HSD activity (I, II, III) were observed in chromatofocusing and all were identified on Western blot by a specific Y' binder antiserum. 3 alpha-HSD-I, the predominant form, was purified and functioned best as a reductase at pH with a marked preference for NADPH. Michaelis constant values for mono- and dihydroxy bile acids were 1-2 microM, and cholic acid competitively inhibited the reduction of 3-oxo-cholic acid. Under normal redox conditions, partially purified 3 alpha-HSD-I and freshly isolated hepatocytes catalyzed the rapid reduction of 3-oxo-cholic to cholic acid without formation of isocholic acid, whereas the reverse reaction was negligible. The Y' bile acid binders are therefore 3 alpha-HSD, which preferentially and stereospecifically catalyze the reduction of 3-oxo-bile acids to 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acids.

3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type ii

3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type ii

Rat Y' bile acid binders (33 kD) have been previously recognized as cytosolic bile acid binding proteins (Sugiyama, Y., T. Yamada, and N. Kaplowitz, 1983, J. Biol. Chem., 258:3602-3607). We have now determined that these Y' binders are 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3 alpha-HSD), bile acid-metabolizing enzymes. 3 alpha-HSD activity copurified with lithocholic acid-binding activity after sequential gel filtration, chromatofocusing, and affinity chromatography. Three peaks of 3 alpha-HSD activity (I, II, III) were observed in chromatofocusing and all were identified on Western blot by a specific Y' binder antiserum. 3 alpha-HSD-I, the predominant form, was purified and functioned best as a reductase at pH with a marked preference for NADPH. Michaelis constant values for mono- and dihydroxy bile acids were 1-2 microM, and cholic acid competitively inhibited the reduction of 3-oxo-cholic acid. Under normal redox conditions, partially purified 3 alpha-HSD-I and freshly isolated hepatocytes catalyzed the rapid reduction of 3-oxo-cholic to cholic acid without formation of isocholic acid, whereas the reverse reaction was negligible. The Y' bile acid binders are therefore 3 alpha-HSD, which preferentially and stereospecifically catalyze the reduction of 3-oxo-bile acids to 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acids.

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