Amine hormone that acts like a steroid

Several important peptide hormones are secreted from the pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary secretes three hormones: prolactin , which acts on the mammary gland ; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which acts on the adrenal cortex to regulate the secretion of glucocorticoids ; and growth hormone , which acts on bone , muscle , and the liver . The posterior pituitary gland secretes antidiuretic hormone , also called vasopressin, and oxytocin . Peptide hormones are produced by many different organs and tissues, including the heart ( atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)) and pancreas ( glucagon , insulin and somatostatin ), the gastrointestinal tract ( cholecystokinin , gastrin ), and adipose tissue stores ( leptin ). [5] [6]

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is thought to mainly function as a transporter and reservoir for the estradiol and testosterone sex hormones. However it has also been demonstrated that SHBG can bind to a cell surface receptor (SHBG-R). The SHBG-R has not been completely characterized. A subset of steroids are able to bind to the SHBG/SHBG-R complex resulting in an activation of adenylyl cyclase and synthesis of the cAMP second messenger. [19] Hence the SHBG/SHBG-R complex appears to act as a transmembrane steroid receptor that is capable of transmitting signals to the interior of cells.

Norepinephrine, similar to other catecholamines, is generated from the amino acid tyrosine . Norepinephrine exerts its effects by binding to α- and β-adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors, so named for their reaction to the adrenal hormones) in different tissues. In the blood vessels , it triggers vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which increases blood pressure . Blood pressure is further raised by norepinephrine as a result of its effects on the heart muscle, which increase the output of blood from the heart. Norepinephrine also acts to increase blood glucose levels and levels of circulating free fatty acids . The substance has also been shown to modulate the function of certain types of immune cells (., T cells ). Norepinephrine activity is efficiently terminated through inactivation by the enzymes catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT) or monoamine oxidase (MAO), by reuptake into nerve endings, or by diffusion from binding sites. Norepinephrine that diffuses away from local nerve endings can act on adrenergic receptors at distant sites.

SEE ALSO Adrenal Gland ; Amino Acid ; Blood Sugar Regulation ; Endocrine System ; Female Reproductive System ; Homeostasis ; Hypothalamus ; Male Reproductive System ; Nucleotides ; Pancreas ; Pituitary Gland ; Thyroid Gland ; Transcription

Amine hormone that acts like a steroid

amine hormone that acts like a steroid

SEE ALSO Adrenal Gland ; Amino Acid ; Blood Sugar Regulation ; Endocrine System ; Female Reproductive System ; Homeostasis ; Hypothalamus ; Male Reproductive System ; Nucleotides ; Pancreas ; Pituitary Gland ; Thyroid Gland ; Transcription

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