In 1989, East Germany’s communist regime was overwhelmed by the democratization sweeping across Eastern Europe. On the evening of November 9, 1989, East Germany announced an easing of travel restrictions to the West, and thousands demanded passage though the Berlin Wall. Faced with growing demonstrations, East German border guards opened the borders. Jubilant Berliners climbed on top of the Berlin Wall, painted graffiti on it, and removed fragments as souvenirs. The next day, East German troops began dismantling the wall. In 1990, East and West Germany were formally reunited.
The most recent German-speaking Nobel Prize recipient is Herta Müller, who won in 2009. Born in 1953 in Romania to a family that was part of the country's German minority, she migrated to Germany in 1987. Her works deal with the consequences of the communist dictatorship in Romania . In her 304-page prose-poem "The Hunger Angel" (2009), Müller describes the deportation of a young man to a labor camp in Soviet Ukraine. It represents the fate that the ethnic German population in Transylvania faced after WWII. Müller's mother spent various years in a labor camp in Ukraine after the war's end. She also drew upon the oral history of the Transylvanian-born ethnic German poet Oskar Pastior that she had recorded. The Nobel jury described Müller as an author, "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed."
Ludvik is a member of the European Academy of Science and Arts (since 2000), member of the Steering Committee of the . (International Conference on Higher Education), member of Pan-European Union, member of the Board of European Rectors Conference, Magna Charta Universitatum, member of Collegium, member and President of the Danube Rectors' Conference (1996-1999), member of the international committee European Forum Alpbach (1999- ) and Governor of the American Chamber of Commerce in Slovenia (1999-2001). His main activities and focus of interest lie in social reforms, political parties, human rights, diplomacy and his major fields of expertise include Law, Economy, Environment, Management, Small Businesses, Cooperatives, Professional Ethics, University Management, Foundations, Charity.