Metabolizm procesy anaboliczne i kataboliczne

Phase II Detoxification – Enzymatic Conjugation : Following phase I transformation, the original lipid-soluble toxin has been converted into a more water-soluble form, however, this reactive intermediate is still unsuitable for immediate elimination from the cell for a couple of reasons: 1) phase I reactions are not sufficient to make the toxin water-soluble enough to complete the entire excretion pathway; and 2) in many cases, products from the phase I reactions have been rendered more reactive then the original toxins, which makes them potentially more destructive than they once were. Both of these shortcomings are addressed by the activities of the phase II enzymes, which modify phase I products to both increase their solubility and reduce their toxicity. The activation of the phase II enzymes is responsible for the anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties of the metabolic detoxification systems; it is widely accepted that phase II enzymes protect against chemical carcinogenesis, especially during the initiation phase of cancers. 24

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Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by decreased activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), an enzyme that converts the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine , a precursor of several important hormones and skin, hair, and eye pigments. Decreased PAH activity results in accumulation of phenylalanine and a decreased amount of tyrosine and other metabolites. Persistent high levels of phenylalanine in the blood in turn result in progressive developmental delay, a small head circumference, behaviour disturbances, and seizures. Due to a decreased amount of the pigment melanin , persons with PKU tend to have lighter features, such as blond hair and blue eyes, than other family members who do not have the disease. Treatment with special formulas and with foods low in phenylalanine and protein can reduce phenylalanine levels to normal and maintain normal intelligence. However, rare cases of PKU that result from impaired metabolism of biopterin, an essential cofactor in the phenylalanine hydroxylase reaction, may not consistently respond to therapy.

Nitrates and nitrites are wastes produced by nitrifying bacteria , just as sulfur and sulfates are produced by sulfur-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria . Insoluble iron waste can be made by iron bacteria by using soluble forms. In plants, resins, fats, waxes, and complex organic chemicals are exuded from plants, ., the latex from rubber trees and milkweeds. Solid waste products may be manufactured as organic pigments derived from breakdown of pigments like hemoglobin, and inorganic salts like carbonates, bicarbonates, and phosphate, whether in ionic or molecular form, are excreted as solids. [3]

Metabolizm procesy anaboliczne i kataboliczne

metabolizm procesy anaboliczne i kataboliczne

Nitrates and nitrites are wastes produced by nitrifying bacteria , just as sulfur and sulfates are produced by sulfur-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria . Insoluble iron waste can be made by iron bacteria by using soluble forms. In plants, resins, fats, waxes, and complex organic chemicals are exuded from plants, ., the latex from rubber trees and milkweeds. Solid waste products may be manufactured as organic pigments derived from breakdown of pigments like hemoglobin, and inorganic salts like carbonates, bicarbonates, and phosphate, whether in ionic or molecular form, are excreted as solids. [3]

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