Why does late-onset asthma seem to encourage higher risk of heart disease and stroke? The researchers theorize that the nuanced differences between early and late-onset seem to be at play here. In addition to the heightened difficulty of controlling late-onset asthma with standard medications that typically resolve early-onset flare ups, late-onset asthma may be specifically linked to air pollution and often involves a more rapid decline of lung function. A 2012 study published in the European Journal of Heart Failure links airflow obstruction and compromised lung function with a higher risk of incident heart failure. Limitations of the study include the fact that most of the subjects were Caucasian, and details on air pollution exposure and stressful life events, which can raise heart disease risk, were not accessible.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.