Steroid function in cell membrane

Cholesterol - Cholesterol is a major precursor of cholesterol ester, bile acids, and steroid hormones and is a component of plasma membranes. It is a necessary component of all cell membranes. It is the precursor to all steroid hormone (including estrogen , testosterone , cortisol , and vitamin D ). It is the leading organic molecule in the brain and is needed for brain function. However, too much cholesterol in the bloodstream can be unhealthy, it builds up in the artery wall and can lead to the signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease.

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

Depending on the number and character of their functional groups, steroid molecules may show diverse reactivities. Moreover, the reactivity of a functional group varies according to its location within the molecule (for example, esters are formed readily by 3-OH groups but only with difficulty by the 11β-OH group). An important property of steroids is polarity —., their solubility in oxygen-containing solvents (., water and alcohols ) rather than hydrocarbon solvents (., hexane and benzene ). Hydroxyl, ketonic, or ionizable (capable of dissociating to form electrically charged particles) groups in a steroid molecule increase its polarity to an extent that is strongly influenced by the spatial arrangement of the atoms within the molecule.

Steroid function in cell membrane

steroid function in cell membrane

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