Steroidogenic cells definition

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The secretion of hypothalamic, pituitary, and target tissue hormones is under tight regulatory control by a series of feedback and feed- forward loops. This complexity can be demonstrated using the growth hormone (GH) regulatory system as an example. The stimulatory substance growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and the inhibitory substance somatostatin (SS) both products of the hypothalamus, control pituitary GH secretion. Somatostatin is also called growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH). Under the influence of GHRH, growth hormone is released into the systemic circulation, causing the target tissue to secrete insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1. Growth hormone also has other more direct metabolic effects; it is both hyperglycemic and lipolytic. The principal source of systemic IGF-1 is the liver, although most other tissues secrete and contribute to systemic IGF-1. Liver IGF-1 is considered to be the principal regulator of tissue growth. In particular, the IGF-1 secreted by the liver is believed to synchronize growth throughout the body, resulting in a homeostatic balance of tissue size and mass. IGF-1 secreted by peripheral tissues is generally considered to be autocrine or paracrine in its biological action.

The StAR protein was first identified, characterized and named by Dr. Douglas Stocco at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in 1994. [18] The role of this protein in lipoid CAH was confirmed the following year in collaboration with Dr. Walter Miller at the University of California, San Francisco . [19] All of this work follows the initial observations of the appearance of this protein and its phosphorylated form coincident with factors that caused steroid production by Dr. Nanette Orme-Johnson while at Tufts University . [20]

Previously, we have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells could be differentiated into steroidogenic cells through steroidogenic factor-1 and 8bromo-cAMP treatment. Use of liver receptor homolog-1, another of the nuclear receptor 5A family nuclear receptors, with 8bromo-cAMP also resulted in the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into steroid hormone-producing cells. The same approaches could not be applied to other undifferentiated cells such as embryonic stem cells or embryonal carcinoma cells, because the over-expression of the nuclear receptor 5A family is cytotoxic to these cells. We established embryonic stem cells carrying tetracycline-regulated steroidogenic factor-1 gene at the ROSA26 locus. The embryonic stem cells were first differentiated into a mesenchymal cell lineage by culturing on collagen IV-coated dishes and treating with pulse exposures of retinoic acid before expression of steroidogenic factor-1. Although the untreated embryonic stem cells could not be converted into steroidogenic cells by expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor due to inability of the cells to survive, the differentiated cells could be successfully converted into steroidogenic cells when expression of steroidogenic factor-1 was induced. They exhibited characteristics of adrenocortical-like cells and produced a large amount of corticosterone. These results indicated that pluripotent stem cells could be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by the nuclear receptor 5A family of protein via the mesenchymal cell lineage. This approach may provide a source of cells for future gene therapy for diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies.

Steroidogenic cells definition

steroidogenic cells definition

Previously, we have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells could be differentiated into steroidogenic cells through steroidogenic factor-1 and 8bromo-cAMP treatment. Use of liver receptor homolog-1, another of the nuclear receptor 5A family nuclear receptors, with 8bromo-cAMP also resulted in the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into steroid hormone-producing cells. The same approaches could not be applied to other undifferentiated cells such as embryonic stem cells or embryonal carcinoma cells, because the over-expression of the nuclear receptor 5A family is cytotoxic to these cells. We established embryonic stem cells carrying tetracycline-regulated steroidogenic factor-1 gene at the ROSA26 locus. The embryonic stem cells were first differentiated into a mesenchymal cell lineage by culturing on collagen IV-coated dishes and treating with pulse exposures of retinoic acid before expression of steroidogenic factor-1. Although the untreated embryonic stem cells could not be converted into steroidogenic cells by expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor due to inability of the cells to survive, the differentiated cells could be successfully converted into steroidogenic cells when expression of steroidogenic factor-1 was induced. They exhibited characteristics of adrenocortical-like cells and produced a large amount of corticosterone. These results indicated that pluripotent stem cells could be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by the nuclear receptor 5A family of protein via the mesenchymal cell lineage. This approach may provide a source of cells for future gene therapy for diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies.

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