The FE Na is generally less than 1% in patients with hepatorenal syndrome and acute glomerulonephropathy. Although often reliable at discriminating between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis, the FE Na has been reported to be <1% occasionally with oliguric and nonoliguric acute tubular necrosis, urinary tract obstruction, acute glomerulonephritis, renal allograft rejection, sepsis, and drug-related alterations in renal hemodynamics.  Therefore, the utility of the test is best when used in conjunction with other clinical data.
To assess local oxidative stress, we evaluated lipid and protein oxidation by measuring tissue content of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and carbonyl proteins. Lipid and protein oxidation were similar among all experimental groups in the renal cortex and medulla after 7 days of the diabetes induction (Table 2 ). However, 4-HNE and carbonyl protein content in renal cortex and medulla were significantly increased in diabetic rats compared to the control group after 30 days (Figure 3 ). This diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress was prevented by insulin treatment (Figure 3 ).
Hemodialysis and kidney transplant are two methods of helping chronic renal failure. In hemodialysis, an artificial kidney device cleans the blood of wastes and adjusts the composition of ions. During the procedure, blood is taken out of the radial artery in the patient's arm. It then passes through dialysis tubing, which is selectively permeable. The tubing is immersed in a solution . As the blood passes through the tubing, wastes pass out of the tubing and into the surrounding solution. The cleansed blood returns to the body. Kidney transplants also help chronic kidney failure. In this procedure, a surgeon replaces a diseased kidney with a closely matched donor kidney. Although about 23,000 people in the United States wait for donor kidneys each year, fewer than 8,000 receive kidney transplants. Current research aims to develop new drugs to help kidney failure better dialysis membranes for the artificial kidney.